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Baume & Mercier Linea 18K Rose Gold & Steel MOA10073...
TOP
Baume & Mercier Linea 18K Rose Gold & Steel MOA10073...
$2,299
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Panerai Luminor Marina 1950 3 Days Automatic 44MM Perfect...
TOP
Panerai Luminor Marina 1950 3 Days Automatic 44MM Perfect...
$5,450
Seller
Swiss Moves
25
US
Breguet Reine de Naples Automatic 35mm 8967st/v8/986 blue
Breguet Reine de Naples Automatic 35mm 8967st/v8/986 blue
$8,450
Free shipping
Seller
East Coast Jewelry
7
US
Piaget MASSIVE 36mm 1970s 18KT WG AUTOMATIC CUFFLING SET BOX
TOP
Piaget MASSIVE 36mm 1970s 18KT WG AUTOMATIC CUFFLING SET BOX
$6,000
Free shipping
Seller
Watch Hunter
 
US
Alain Silberstein Rare Krono Bauhaus 2 Limited Edition...
TOP
Alain Silberstein Rare Krono Bauhaus 2 Limited Edition...
$8,500
Seller
Priceless Shine Inc
13
US
Cartier Santos 100 Automatic Stainless Steel 2878
TOP
Cartier Santos 100 Automatic Stainless Steel 2878
$3,599
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Rolex 18k Gold Oyster 1501 Perpetual 6504138 1980 Automatic...
TOP
Rolex 18k Gold Oyster 1501 Perpetual 6504138 1980 Automatic...
$9,806
Seller
GMTSKY
193
US
Cartier PVD/DLC Roadster XL Chronograph 48mm  - Automatic 3405...
TOP
Cartier PVD/DLC Roadster XL Chronograph 48mm - Automatic 3405...
$6,995
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
101
US
Blancpain Fifty Fathoms GMT Automatic 18K Yellow Gold
TOP
Blancpain Fifty Fathoms GMT Automatic 18K Yellow Gold
$11,995
Free shipping
Seller
AJ Watches
46
US
Chopard New Men's  Classic Dual Tec 168468-3001 Automatic...
TOP
Chopard New Men's Classic Dual Tec 168468-3001 Automatic...
$3,795
Free shipping
Seller
Luxury Horology
93
US
Urwerk UR 202 Mens Automatic Watch 202/WG
Urwerk UR 202 Mens Automatic Watch 202/WG
$64,995
Seller
Luxury Bazaar
37
US
Omega Automatic Half Rotor Bumper Side Second Steel Mens Watch
TOP
Omega Automatic Half Rotor Bumper Side Second Steel Mens Watch
$975
Seller
Watch World Star
143
UK
Patek Philippe Aquanaut 5065/1A Automatic Men / Unisex watch
Patek Philippe Aquanaut 5065/1A Automatic Men / Unisex watch
$16,900
Seller
FeelGoodWatches, Inc.
US
Rolex Datejust 116200 Stainless Steel Automatice 36mm Custom...
TOP
Rolex Datejust 116200 Stainless Steel Automatice 36mm Custom...
$8,000
Seller
Priceless Shine Inc
13
US
Bulgari Diagono DG 42 SC CH Automatic Chronograph
TOP
Bulgari Diagono DG 42 SC CH Automatic Chronograph
$3,999
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Rolex Datejust Vintage 1601 Solid Gold and Steel 1977 Swiss...
TOP
Rolex Datejust Vintage 1601 Solid Gold and Steel 1977 Swiss...
$4,761
Seller
GMTSKY
193
US
Patek Philippe 2526 Vintage Calatrava Automatic Enamel Dial...
Patek Philippe 2526 Vintage Calatrava Automatic Enamel Dial...
$41,900
Seller
European Watch Company
64
US
IWC Pilot Woldtimer Automatic Stainless Steel
TOP
IWC Pilot Woldtimer Automatic Stainless Steel
$6,495
Free shipping
Seller
AJ Watches
46
US
Breguet Classique Automatic Ultra Slim
Breguet Classique Automatic Ultra Slim
$9,950
Seller
Tarrytown Jewelers
 
US
Rolex Mens Rolex Datejust Ii Black 41mm  Automatic Watch...
Rolex Mens Rolex Datejust Ii Black 41mm Automatic Watch...
$9,945
Seller
Watch My Diamonds
49
US
Franck Muller Conquistador Sport GPG Men's Automatic Watch...
Franck Muller Conquistador Sport GPG Men's Automatic Watch...
$7,239
Seller
Luxury Bazaar
37
US
IWC Portuguese 7 Days Power Reserve Automatic IW500107
IWC Portuguese 7 Days Power Reserve Automatic IW500107
$9,750
Seller
Kronopassion
6
US
Chopard Grand Prix Monaco Chrono Automatic Mens 168992-3012 ...
TOP
Chopard Grand Prix Monaco Chrono Automatic Mens 168992-3012 ...
$4,500
Seller
Priceless Shine Inc
13
US
Hermès 18k Yellow Gold & Diamonds Automatic Watch
TOP
Hermès 18k Yellow Gold & Diamonds Automatic Watch
$12,999
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Automatic
TOP
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Automatic
$8,995
Seller
Private seller
 
US
IWC IW376704 Aquatimer Chronograph Automatic / Blue Rubber...
IWC IW376704 Aquatimer Chronograph Automatic / Blue Rubber...
$4,450
Seller
European Watch Company
64
US
Omega Vintage 24 Jewel Seamaster Automatic
Omega Vintage 24 Jewel Seamaster Automatic
$750
Seller
Wristwatch Now
 
US
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Automatic Blue Dial 18kt Pink Gold
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Automatic Blue Dial 18kt Pink Gold
$42,500
Seller
Sea Wave Diamonds
72
US
Omega Men's Omega Seamaster 2599.80.00 Date Automatic...
Omega Men's Omega Seamaster 2599.80.00 Date Automatic...
$2,445
Free shipping
Seller
Luxury Horology
93
US
Breitling Two Tone B13050 Chronograph Automatic Watch With...
Breitling Two Tone B13050 Chronograph Automatic Watch With...
$4,999
Seller
Watch My Diamonds
49
US
Panerai : Luminor 1950 3 Days Automatic :  PAM 312 :  Stainles...
Panerai : Luminor 1950 3 Days Automatic : PAM 312 : Stainles...
$5,970
Seller
BernardWatch.com
139
US
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Automatic
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Automatic
$5,450
Seller
Beverly Hills Watch Company
5
US
Jaeger-LeCoultre Futurematic 10K Gold Filled Automatic
Jaeger-LeCoultre Futurematic 10K Gold Filled Automatic
$1,799
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Richard Mille RM030 Rose Gold Automatic with Declutchable Rotor
Richard Mille RM030 Rose Gold Automatic with Declutchable Rotor
$105,000
Free shipping
Seller
Avi & Co NY
32
US
Patek Philippe 5107P-001 Calatrava Automatic Platinum RARE...
Patek Philippe 5107P-001 Calatrava Automatic Platinum RARE...
$33,500
Seller
European Watch Company
64
US
Franck Muller Men's Automatic Watch 8880CDTACWLAQ
Franck Muller Men's Automatic Watch 8880CDTACWLAQ
$8,450
Seller
Luxury Bazaar
37
US
IWC Aquatimer Chronograph Automatic
IWC Aquatimer Chronograph Automatic
$4,450
Seller
Kronopassion
6
US
TAG Heuer CARRERA Automatic REF:CV2014-2
TAG Heuer CARRERA Automatic REF:CV2014-2
$2,550
Seller
Sea Wave Diamonds
72
US
Rolex Yacht-master Ii 116688 18k Yellow Gold White Dial...
Rolex Yacht-master Ii 116688 18k Yellow Gold White Dial...
$30,995
Seller
Watch My Diamonds
49
US
Seiko Grand Seiko 9S Mechanical Automatic 3-Day SBGR257
Seiko Grand Seiko 9S Mechanical Automatic 3-Day SBGR257
$2,950
Free shipping
Seller
Govberg Jewelers
159
US
Omega Speedmaster Automatic "Broad Arrow" 42mm
Omega Speedmaster Automatic "Broad Arrow" 42mm
$4,175
Seller
Beverly Hills Watch Company
5
US
TAG Heuer Aquaracer Automatic Watch WAB2010
TAG Heuer Aquaracer Automatic Watch WAB2010
$1,259
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Cvstos Challenge Sea-Liner Automatic
Cvstos Challenge Sea-Liner Automatic
$7,950
Seller
Diamond Box, Inc. DBA Solitaire Bridal & Estate Jewellers
 
US
Jaquet-Droz J007030248 Grande Seconde Quantieme Automatic SS...
Jaquet-Droz J007030248 Grande Seconde Quantieme Automatic SS...
$4,950
Seller
European Watch Company
64
US
Franck Muller Casablanca Men's Automatic Watch 8880CDTNRRE...
Franck Muller Casablanca Men's Automatic Watch 8880CDTNRRE...
$7,015
Seller
Luxury Bazaar
37
US
F.P.Journe Octa Lune Platinum  Date Automatic  5 Days Power...
F.P.Journe Octa Lune Platinum Date Automatic 5 Days Power...
$34,500
Seller
Kronopassion
6
US
Cartier Pasha Diver Chronograph Automatic  W3103055
Cartier Pasha Diver Chronograph Automatic W3103055
$3,600
Seller
Sea Wave Diamonds
72
US
Cartier Luxury Diamond Cartier Santos 100 Automatic Watch...
Cartier Luxury Diamond Cartier Santos 100 Automatic Watch...
$9,999
Seller
Watch My Diamonds
49
US
Panerai : Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT :  PAM 320 :  Stainless...
Panerai : Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT : PAM 320 : Stainless...
$6,795
Seller
BernardWatch.com
139
US
IWC Portuguese Automatic
IWC Portuguese Automatic
$7,450
Seller
WatchBox
53
US
IWC Ingenieur Stainless Steel IW323301 Automatic
IWC Ingenieur Stainless Steel IW323301 Automatic
$4,199
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Panerai Luminor Marina Automatic Gent's Stainless Steel 44mm
Panerai Luminor Marina Automatic Gent's Stainless Steel 44mm
$4,950
Seller
Diamond Box, Inc. DBA Solitaire Bridal & Estate Jewellers
 
US
Patek Philippe 3440 Vintage Automatic 18K / Champagne TIFFANY...
Patek Philippe 3440 Vintage Automatic 18K / Champagne TIFFANY...
$13,500
Seller
European Watch Company
64
US
IWC Portuguese Yacht Club Men's Automatic Chronograph...
IWC Portuguese Yacht Club Men's Automatic Chronograph...
$11,376
Seller
Luxury Bazaar
37
US
Longines New Men's Saint-Imier L27668793 Automatic 18K Rose
Longines New Men's Saint-Imier L27668793 Automatic 18K Rose
$4,295
Free shipping
Seller
Luxury Horology
93
US
Omega De Ville Automatic Chronometer
Omega De Ville Automatic Chronometer
$1,150
Seller
Wristwatch Now
 
US
Cartier Original Pave Diamonds Ballon Bleu 42mm W69012z4 Roman...
Cartier Original Pave Diamonds Ballon Bleu 42mm W69012z4 Roman...
$15,999
Seller
Watch My Diamonds
49
US
Panerai : Luminor Submersible 1950 3 Days Titanio :  PAM 1305...
Panerai : Luminor Submersible 1950 3 Days Titanio : PAM 1305...
$7,620
Seller
BernardWatch.com
139
US
F.P.Journe Octa Automatique Reserve Sport Limited Edition Ref.
F.P.Journe Octa Automatique Reserve Sport Limited Edition Ref.
$21,495
Seller
WatchBox
53
US
Rolex Oyster Perpetual 6565 Yellow Gold Automatic
Rolex Oyster Perpetual 6565 Yellow Gold Automatic
$6,399
Seller
Phigora
74
US
Chopard Mille Miglia 18K Yellow Gold Automatic
Chopard Mille Miglia 18K Yellow Gold Automatic
$3,950
Seller
Diamond Box, Inc. DBA Solitaire Bridal & Estate Jewellers
 
US
Seiko Grand Seiko Automatic Hi-Beat SBGJ019
Seiko Grand Seiko Automatic Hi-Beat SBGJ019
$4,650
Free shipping
Seller
Govberg Jewelers
159
US

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Mechanical Timepieces

Automatic watches are powered by the natural motion of your wrist while you wear them. This type of watch has a rich history reaching back to the 18th century. Today, countless brands produce their own automatic calibers for their watches.

Highlights

  • Automatically wound by the natural movements of your arm
  • Environmentally-friendly: No batteries to produce or throw away
  • The Rolex Oyster Perpetual is one of the most famous automatic watches
  • John Harwood is considered the inventor of the automatic wristwatch
  • Automatic watches available in almost every price range

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Timepieces

Automatic watches fall under the larger umbrella term of mechanical watches. They offer a key advantage over manual timepieces: They wind automatically via the movement of the wearer's arm. An oscillating mass inside the caliber is responsible for winding the spring. Today, this is in most cases a winding rotor. It is flexibly mounted so that gravity pulls it towards the center. When you're wearing the watch and move your wrist, the rotor moves and gives the caliber new energy. Automatic watches don't require batteries, making mechanical watches comparably more environmentally friendly than battery-powered quartz watches.
Automatic watches are available from almost every famous watch manufacturer in all price ranges. Less expensive models are often powered by base calibers made by the ébauche manufacturers ETA, Soprod, or Sellita. Various manufacturers use these calibers in a more or less reworked form in their watches. These calibers even power the watches made by famous brands such as Breitling and TAG Heuer. However, both manufacturers have developed their own in-house movements as well.
Rolex and Patek Philippe are some of the most well-known watch manufacturers. Unlike many other brands, these two Geneva-based manufacturers don't outsource base calibers. Instead, they use their own. For example, Rolex's caliber 3130 is considered very robust, reliable, and precise. These qualities and more make the caliber one of the best automatic movements on the market; it powers Rolex watches such as the Submariner. Since Rolex produces their watches almost entirely in-house, production is costlier. This results in higher prices for automatic watches with in-house movements.

Buying Tips

If you're searching for an automatic watch, the hard part is actually choosing one. Should it be large or small, simple or extravagant, affordable or expensive? The selection is ample for every taste and budget. Pre-owned automatic watches from Citizen, Seiko, or Swatch are available for around 50 euros. These watches often only have three hands for the hours, minutes, and seconds. Some also have a date or even day/date display.
In the price range between 100 and 200 euros, you can find diverse new automatic watches from brands like Seiko or Fossil. Pre-owned watches from long-established manufacturers such as Tissot, Hamilton, or Longines cost up to 500 euros. The situation is similar in the 1,000 euros and under price range, though here you can also find new models from the German brand Marcello C.
In the 1,000 euro price range, you can find pre-owned Omega or Breitling watches. New automatic three-hand watches are available from Oris, Raymond Weil, or Rado.
However, if you're looking for an automatic chronograph, you need to adjust your budget accordingly. A pre-owned automatic chronograph costs at least 500 euros; this applies to watches from brands such as Tissot or Hamilton. New chronographs cost a few hundred euros more, around 800 euros. These watches are often powered by ETA's Valjoux 7750, which is considered one of the most successful automatic chronograph calibers in the world.
If you're searching for a new automatic Rolex, you need to plan on spending at least 3,000 euros. You can purchase the introductory model, Oyster Perpetual, for this price. You can occasionally find pre-owned vintage watches from this Genevan manufacturer for less than 1,000 euros. The Submariner, one of the first and most famous diving watches in the world, is available pre-owned for around 4,100 euros. New, it costs around 5,600 euros. Rolex's chronograph, the Daytona, is available for around 7,500 euros.
The most expensive automatic watches are from brands such as Audemars Piguet and Patek Philippe. These watches are often made of platinum or 18-karat gold and feature countless diamonds on their dial and/or case. At times, these watches are also incredibly expensive as they're rare vintage watches coveted by collectors. Prices over 1 million euros are not too rare when it comes to these watches.

The Technology Behind Automatic Watches

The mainspring of an automatic watch is, as the name suggests, automatically wound by the movement itself. The mainspring is wound, becomes tense, and stores energy. This happens through the natural movements of the wearer's arm when the watch is on his or her wrist. This mechanism eliminates the need to manually wind the mainspring. Instead, an oscillating mass - often the rotor - winds the mainspring. Gravity causes the flexibly mounted rotor to move towards the center and a gear-train transfers the energy from the rotor's movement to the barrel. Viewed from a physics standpoint, the mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy.
There are automatic movements that wind in one or both directions. Bi-directional winding movements have so-called reverser gears. These ensure that the rotor winds the barrel in both directions. Uni-directional winding movements actually wind bidirectionally, but the mainspring is only wound in one direction. Both variants have a reduction gear which converts the fast movements of the rotor into slower movements with more torque. The end of the mainspring is not directly connected to the barrel so that it doesn't snap off when it's fully wound. The outer end of the spring is outfitted with a bridle, which keeps the pressure on the mainspring's outermost coil. When not fully wound, that pressure allows the outer end of the mainspring to be caught in a notch in the barrel wall. Once the spring is fully wound, it moves along to the next notch.
Automatic watches have many advantages: They're comfortable, environmentally-friendly, and usually more precise. This improved precision is due to the mainspring, which is always tense and has a more constant torque than mainsprings in hand-wound calibers. This has a positive effect on the amplitude. The amplitude is the balance wheel's degree of rotation and refers to the wheel's maximum rotation angle between equilibrium and a reversal point.

Technical Details of Automatic Watches

  • The winding rotor winds the mainspring in the barrel
  • Advantages: no manual winding required, environmentally-friendly, more precise
  • Uni-directional and bi-directional winding movements

The Origins of Automatic Watches

Automatic winding is one of the most important and long-lasting innovations in the history of watchmaking and the mechanism is one of the most widespread complications in use today.
Today's automatic watches can trace their origin back to the year 1729. Abraham-Louis Perrelet improved the winding mechanism of pocket watches in the 18th century. A small key was required to wind a movement before this improvement. Since the key was never there when you needed it, winding mechanisms that didn't require a key were in high demand. Perrelet wanted to invent a self-winding pocket watch. In 1770, he introduced his pedometer watch after countless attempts. The watch had an oscillating weight which teetered back and forth as the wearer walked. The motion caused the oscillating weight to tense the mainspring. Perrelet also developed a caliber with a winding rotor which swiveled above the movement. With these innovations, the groundwork for today's automatic watches was laid.
Refined men carried their pocket watches tucked away safely in their jacket, vest, or pants. The timepieces barely moved while in their pockets, which meant that the oscillating mass didn't have enough energy to wind the mainspring. The crown-wind method solved the key-wind problem in the mid-19th century, making the automatic pocket watch superfluous.

The First Automatic Wristwatches

The French watchmaker Léon Leroy was also a pioneer in the development of automatic watches. He presented his first automatic wristwatch in 1922. Some of these watches even had a date display. However, Leroy was far away from being able to mass produce a series.
The British watchmaker John Harwood lead automatic wristwatches to series production. He began working on automatic movements in 1922. Two years later, he patented his work, paving the way for the first series-produced automatic wristwatches.
Rolex's Oyster Perpetual was one of the first automatic wristwatches. Rolex introduced the watch to the market in 1931. It's one of the few early models that has lasted over the years and is still produced today. The principle behind Oyster Perpetual's winding rotor is at the heart of every modern automatic wristwatch.