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Patek Philippe Grand Complications Annual Calendar Moonphase...
Top
Patek Philippe Grand Complications Annual Calendar Moonphase...
$71,999
Free shipping
Seller
Avi & Co NY
22
US
Patek Philippe Complications Annual Calendar 40mm Rose Gold
Top
Patek Philippe Complications Annual Calendar 40mm Rose Gold
$42,999
Free shipping
Seller
Avi & Co NY
22
US
Chopard VINTAGE 70S LARGE HAPPY DIAMOND SAUDI KING REF. 2121
Top
Chopard VINTAGE 70S LARGE HAPPY DIAMOND SAUDI KING REF. 2121
$10,500
Free shipping
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Watch Hunter
 
US
Rolex Explorer II
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Rolex Explorer II
$8,500
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Ari's Luxury Watch
 
US
Breitling Superocean Héritage Chronograph
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Breitling Superocean Héritage Chronograph
$2,700
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Timekeepers
 
US
Hublot Big Bang King  Min Repeater NEW 67% off
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Hublot Big Bang King Min Repeater NEW 67% off
$140,000
Seller
Raffi Boyadjian Watches Inc.
6
US
Rolex Submariner
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Rolex Submariner
$5,950
Seller
Laurent Fine Watches
11
US
Rolex Mens 18K Yellow Gold Day-Date President - Champagne Dial...
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Rolex Mens 18K Yellow Gold Day-Date President - Champagne Dial...
$9,500
Free shipping
Seller
SD & CO LLC
10
US
Jaeger-LeCoultre Master Control Geographic 142.2.92 18K Rose Gold
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Jaeger-LeCoultre Master Control Geographic 142.2.92 18K Rose Gold
$11,799
Seller
Phigora
62
US
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph 18K blue dial
Top
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph 18K blue dial
$53,000
Seller
Sea Wave Diamonds
53
US
Rolex GMT-Master II
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Rolex GMT-Master II
$7,150
Seller
Nitza Lerner Co.
 
US
Vacheron Constantin ASYMMETRICAL 1972 PRESTIGE DE LA FRANCE  #...
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Vacheron Constantin ASYMMETRICAL 1972 PRESTIGE DE LA FRANCE #...
$13,500
Free shipping
Seller
Watch Hunter
 
US
Rolex Submariner Date
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Rolex Submariner Date
$9,500
Seller
Ari's Luxury Watch
 
US
Rolex Steel 36mm DATEJUST Black Index 1980's Quickset...
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Rolex Steel 36mm DATEJUST Black Index 1980's Quickset...
$3,595
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Rolex RARE Sea Dweller  - Rolex Warranty Card - Tool kit 16600
Top
Rolex RARE Sea Dweller - Rolex Warranty Card - Tool kit 16600
$7,500
Seller
Modern Swiss
 
US
Cartier Diamond Cartier Santos 100 Xl Chronograph 17ct Natural...
Top
Cartier Diamond Cartier Santos 100 Xl Chronograph 17ct Natural...
$14,500
Seller
Watch My Diamonds
37
US
Rolex Day-Date II / President II Black Roman Dial
Top
Rolex Day-Date II / President II Black Roman Dial
$26,900
Seller
Stein Diamonds
5
US
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Datejust 16013 Two Tone Watch
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Rolex Oyster Perpetual Datejust 16013 Two Tone Watch
$3,899
Seller
Phigora
62
US
Breitling Bentley Motors
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Breitling Bentley Motors
$5,850
Seller
Sea Wave Diamonds
53
US
Rolex Daytona
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Rolex Daytona
$11,500
Seller
Nitza Lerner Co.
 
US
Patek Philippe Calatrava Vintage 3429J Yellow Dial 3X signed
Top
Patek Philippe Calatrava Vintage 3429J Yellow Dial 3X signed
$9,800
Free shipping
Seller
Watch Hunter
 
US
Rolex Day-Date
Top
Rolex Day-Date
$11,500
Seller
Ari's Luxury Watch
 
US
Rolex 2004 PVD/DLC Explorer Custom White Dial 36mm - 114270 model
Top
Rolex 2004 PVD/DLC Explorer Custom White Dial 36mm - 114270 model
$4,995
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Breitling OLD NAVITIMER II CHRONOGRAPH POLISHED
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Breitling OLD NAVITIMER II CHRONOGRAPH POLISHED
$3,795
Seller
Swiss Moves
18
US
Breitling Mens SUPEROCEAN Automatic Chronometer Watch 2000m
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Breitling Mens SUPEROCEAN Automatic Chronometer Watch 2000m
$2,229
Seller
Fashion Ace, Inc
 
US
Audemars Piguet Offshore Diver
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Audemars Piguet Offshore Diver
$14,500
Seller
Manfredi Jewels
 
US
Panerai Luminor GMT Automatic SS PAM88 Box & Papers
Top
Panerai Luminor GMT Automatic SS PAM88 Box & Papers
$6,499
Seller
Phigora
62
US
Franck Muller Master Banker 18K Yellow Gold
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Franck Muller Master Banker 18K Yellow Gold
$6,900
Free shipping
Seller
Daniele Trissi
7
US
Rolex Day-Date
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Rolex Day-Date
$44,900
Seller
Nitza Lerner Co.
 
US
Patek Philippe VINTAGE  PATEK PHILIPPE1960S 18KT YG REF 3425 AUTO
Top
Patek Philippe VINTAGE PATEK PHILIPPE1960S 18KT YG REF 3425 AUTO
$8,500
Free shipping
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Watch Hunter
 
US
Rolex GMT-Master II
Top
Rolex GMT-Master II
$8,500
Seller
Ari's Luxury Watch
 
US
Rolex 2001 SS 36mm DATEJUST White Roman Unpolished Box &...
Top
Rolex 2001 SS 36mm DATEJUST White Roman Unpolished Box &...
$4,495
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Paul Picot Atelier 18K Solid Gold Chronometer Rattrapante
Top
Paul Picot Atelier 18K Solid Gold Chronometer Rattrapante
$8,395
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Swiss Moves
18
US
Omega Seamaster  (16219)
Top
Omega Seamaster (16219)
$4,899
Free shipping
Seller
Chronostore
90
US
Rolex Lady-Presidential/Datejust
Top
Rolex Lady-Presidential/Datejust
$10,250
Free shipping
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The Castle Jewelry
 
US
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Submariner 16803 Black Dial
Top
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Submariner 16803 Black Dial
$6,899
Seller
Phigora
62
US
Zenith El Primero Stratos Flyback
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Zenith El Primero Stratos Flyback
$4,995
Free shipping
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J A Meyer Jewelry & Watches, inc
 
US
Rolex Oyster Perpetual 31 Blue Dial Index
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Rolex Oyster Perpetual 31 Blue Dial Index
$3,999
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Royal Jewelry & Watches
15
US
IWC Pilot Chronograph "The Last Flight"
Top
IWC Pilot Chronograph "The Last Flight"
$11,000
Free shipping
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Fine Watch Bank
10
US
Carl F. Bucherer Patravi Travelgraph 18k Yellow Gold GMT
Top
Carl F. Bucherer Patravi Travelgraph 18k Yellow Gold GMT
$6,500
Free shipping
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Daniele Trissi
7
US
Rolex Explorer II
Top
Rolex Explorer II
$5,000
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Manfredi Jewels
 
US
Panerai PAM 321 Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Power Reserve Automatic
Top
Panerai PAM 321 Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Power Reserve Automatic
$6,995
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Swiss Moves
18
US
Rolex Submariner (No Date)
Top
Rolex Submariner (No Date)
$5,350
Free shipping
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W and B Collection
 
US
Rolex Rolesor 18k & Stainless Steel Yacht Master
Top
Rolex Rolesor 18k & Stainless Steel Yacht Master
$7,995
Free shipping
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The Castle Jewelry
 
US
Cartier Santos 100 Automatic Stainless Steel 2878
Top
Cartier Santos 100 Automatic Stainless Steel 2878
$3,999
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Phigora
62
US
Bremont Martin-Baker Orange MBII/OR
Top
Bremont Martin-Baker Orange MBII/OR
$3,980
Free shipping
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The Luxury Well
35
US
Rolex Datejust 26mm Two Tone  Green Diamond Dial Jubilee
Top
Rolex Datejust 26mm Two Tone Green Diamond Dial Jubilee
$3,777
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Royal Jewelry & Watches
15
US
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Slate Dial w/ Box & Papers 16030...
Top
Rolex SS 36mm DATEJUST Slate Dial w/ Box & Papers 16030...
$3,995
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Omega Mint Men's  Speedmaster 3538.30 Torino Olympic 2006...
Top
Omega Mint Men's Speedmaster 3538.30 Torino Olympic 2006...
$2,045
Free shipping
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Luxury Horology
64
US
Cartier Pasha  (16350)
Top
Cartier Pasha (16350)
$24,999
Free shipping
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Chronostore
90
US
Breitling Crosswind Chronograph Windrider Racing Polished like...
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Breitling Crosswind Chronograph Windrider Racing Polished like...
$4,695
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Swiss Moves
18
US
Montblanc Nicolas Rieussec
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Montblanc Nicolas Rieussec
$18,000
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Orlando Watch Company
 
US
Rolex Daytona 18K & Stainless 16523 w/ 2 Year Warranty
Top
Rolex Daytona 18K & Stainless 16523 w/ 2 Year Warranty
$9,250
Free shipping
Seller
The Castle Jewelry
 
US
Panerai Luminor GMT PAM 321 Power Reserve
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Panerai Luminor GMT PAM 321 Power Reserve
$6,999
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Phigora
62
US
Rolex 16713 Steel & Gold GMT Master II, Black Dial w/ Box...
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Rolex 16713 Steel & Gold GMT Master II, Black Dial w/ Box...
$6,800
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Swiss Wrist
 
US
Rolex Datejust 36mm Stainless Steel Gray Diamond Dial Jubilee...
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Rolex Datejust 36mm Stainless Steel Gray Diamond Dial Jubilee...
$3,448
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Royal Jewelry & Watches
15
US
Rolex 1997 Mark IV SS Zenith Daytona Black Dial - w/ Box &...
Top
Rolex 1997 Mark IV SS Zenith Daytona Black Dial - w/ Box &...
$21,995
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
85
US
Chopard Men's Chopard 1000 Mille Miglia 8994 Limited ED...
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Chopard Men's Chopard 1000 Mille Miglia 8994 Limited ED...
$3,745
Free shipping
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Luxury Horology
64
US
Cartier 118472SX
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Cartier 118472SX
$19,750
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Aaron Faber Gallery
 
US
Cartier Tank Française
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Cartier Tank Française
$2,995
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Swiss Moves
18
US
Rolex Datejust Turn-O-Graph
Rolex Datejust Turn-O-Graph
$4,000
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Fixed On Time LLC
 
US
Cartier Calibre de Cartier
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Cartier Calibre de Cartier
$4,375
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Nitza Lerner Co.
 
US

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Mechanical Timepieces

Automatic watches are powered by the natural motion of your wrist while you wear them. This type of watch has a rich history reaching back to the 18th century. Today, countless brands produce their own automatic calibers for their watches.

Highlights

  • Automatically wound by the natural movements of your arm
  • Environmentally-friendly: No batteries to produce or throw away
  • The Rolex Oyster Perpetual is one of the most famous automatic watches
  • John Harwood is considered the inventor of the automatic wristwatch
  • Automatic watches available in almost every price range

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Timepieces

Automatic watches fall under the larger umbrella term of mechanical watches. They offer a key advantage over manual timepieces: They wind automatically via the movement of the wearer's arm. An oscillating mass inside the caliber is responsible for winding the spring. Today, this is in most cases a winding rotor. It is flexibly mounted so that gravity pulls it towards the center. When you're wearing the watch and move your wrist, the rotor moves and gives the caliber new energy. Automatic watches don't require batteries, making mechanical watches comparably more environmentally friendly than battery-powered quartz watches.
Automatic watches are available from almost every famous watch manufacturer in all price ranges. Less expensive models are often powered by base calibers made by the ébauche manufacturers ETA, Soprod, or Sellita. Various manufacturers use these calibers in a more or less reworked form in their watches. These calibers even power the watches made by famous brands such as Breitling and TAG Heuer. However, both manufacturers have developed their own in-house movements as well.
Rolex and Patek Philippe are some of the most well-known watch manufacturers. Unlike many other brands, these two Geneva-based manufacturers don't outsource base calibers. Instead, they use their own. For example, Rolex's caliber 3130 is considered very robust, reliable, and precise. These qualities and more make the caliber one of the best automatic movements on the market; it powers Rolex watches such as the Submariner. Since Rolex produces their watches almost entirely in-house, production is costlier. This results in higher prices for automatic watches with in-house movements.

Buying Tips

If you're searching for an automatic watch, the hard part is actually choosing one. Should it be large or small, simple or extravagant, affordable or expensive? The selection is ample for every taste and budget. Pre-owned automatic watches from Citizen, Seiko, or Swatch are available for around 50 euros. These watches often only have three hands for the hours, minutes, and seconds. Some also have a date or even day/date display.
In the price range between 100 and 200 euros, you can find diverse new automatic watches from brands like Seiko or Fossil. Pre-owned watches from long-established manufacturers such as Tissot, Hamilton, or Longines cost up to 500 euros. The situation is similar in the 1,000 euros and under price range, though here you can also find new models from the German brand Marcello C.
In the 1,000 euro price range, you can find pre-owned Omega or Breitling watches. New automatic three-hand watches are available from Oris, Raymond Weil, or Rado.
However, if you're looking for an automatic chronograph, you need to adjust your budget accordingly. A pre-owned automatic chronograph costs at least 500 euros; this applies to watches from brands such as Tissot or Hamilton. New chronographs cost a few hundred euros more, around 800 euros. These watches are often powered by ETA's Valjoux 7750, which is considered one of the most successful automatic chronograph calibers in the world.
If you're searching for a new automatic Rolex, you need to plan on spending at least 3,000 euros. You can purchase the introductory model, Oyster Perpetual, for this price. You can occasionally find pre-owned vintage watches from this Genevan manufacturer for less than 1,000 euros. The Submariner, one of the first and most famous diving watches in the world, is available pre-owned for around 4,100 euros. New, it costs around 5,600 euros. Rolex's chronograph, the Daytona, is available for around 7,500 euros.
The most expensive automatic watches are from brands such as Audemars Piguet and Patek Philippe. These watches are often made of platinum or 18-karat gold and feature countless diamonds on their dial and/or case. At times, these watches are also incredibly expensive as they're rare vintage watches coveted by collectors. Prices over 1 million euros are not too rare when it comes to these watches.

The Technology Behind Automatic Watches

The mainspring of an automatic watch is, as the name suggests, automatically wound by the movement itself. The mainspring is wound, becomes tense, and stores energy. This happens through the natural movements of the wearer's arm when the watch is on his or her wrist. This mechanism eliminates the need to manually wind the mainspring. Instead, an oscillating mass - often the rotor - winds the mainspring. Gravity causes the flexibly mounted rotor to move towards the center and a gear-train transfers the energy from the rotor's movement to the barrel. Viewed from a physics standpoint, the mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy.
There are automatic movements that wind in one or both directions. Bi-directional winding movements have so-called reverser gears. These ensure that the rotor winds the barrel in both directions. Uni-directional winding movements actually wind bidirectionally, but the mainspring is only wound in one direction. Both variants have a reduction gear which converts the fast movements of the rotor into slower movements with more torque. The end of the mainspring is not directly connected to the barrel so that it doesn't snap off when it's fully wound. The outer end of the spring is outfitted with a bridle, which keeps the pressure on the mainspring's outermost coil. When not fully wound, that pressure allows the outer end of the mainspring to be caught in a notch in the barrel wall. Once the spring is fully wound, it moves along to the next notch.
Automatic watches have many advantages: They're comfortable, environmentally-friendly, and usually more precise. This improved precision is due to the mainspring, which is always tense and has a more constant torque than mainsprings in hand-wound calibers. This has a positive effect on the amplitude. The amplitude is the balance wheel's degree of rotation and refers to the wheel's maximum rotation angle between equilibrium and a reversal point.

Technical Details of Automatic Watches

  • The winding rotor winds the mainspring in the barrel
  • Advantages: no manual winding required, environmentally-friendly, more precise
  • Uni-directional and bi-directional winding movements

The Origins of Automatic Watches

Automatic winding is one of the most important and long-lasting innovations in the history of watchmaking and the mechanism is one of the most widespread complications in use today.
Today's automatic watches can trace their origin back to the year 1729. Abraham-Louis Perrelet improved the winding mechanism of pocket watches in the 18th century. A small key was required to wind a movement before this improvement. Since the key was never there when you needed it, winding mechanisms that didn't require a key were in high demand. Perrelet wanted to invent a self-winding pocket watch. In 1770, he introduced his pedometer watch after countless attempts. The watch had an oscillating weight which teetered back and forth as the wearer walked. The motion caused the oscillating weight to tense the mainspring. Perrelet also developed a caliber with a winding rotor which swiveled above the movement. With these innovations, the groundwork for today's automatic watches was laid.
Refined men carried their pocket watches tucked away safely in their jacket, vest, or pants. The timepieces barely moved while in their pockets, which meant that the oscillating mass didn't have enough energy to wind the mainspring. The crown-wind method solved the key-wind problem in the mid-19th century, making the automatic pocket watch superfluous.

The First Automatic Wristwatches

The French watchmaker Léon Leroy was also a pioneer in the development of automatic watches. He presented his first automatic wristwatch in 1922. Some of these watches even had a date display. However, Leroy was far away from being able to mass produce a series.
The British watchmaker John Harwood lead automatic wristwatches to series production. He began working on automatic movements in 1922. Two years later, he patented his work, paving the way for the first series-produced automatic wristwatches.
Rolex's Oyster Perpetual was one of the first automatic wristwatches. Rolex introduced the watch to the market in 1931. It's one of the few early models that has lasted over the years and is still produced today. The principle behind Oyster Perpetual's winding rotor is at the heart of every modern automatic wristwatch.